Most of the times Swedan is considered as purva karma (pre-procedure) for shodhan karma i.e. Vaman, Virechan, Vasti, Nasya. Apart from that swedan has so much importance as Pradhan karma (main treatment). Specially in treating vataj and kaphaj vyadhi swedan is very effective

Swedan is a process of external heating by which the body is stimulated to produce sweat to treat several localise and systemic disorders. Swedan liquefies the doshasclears the obstruction of channels of circulation

Swedan is one of the important procedures used in treatment of vataj and kaphaj disorders. Swedan karma generates warmth in the body, pacifies vata, kapha dosha and plays a key role in functioning of body.

TYPES OF SWEDANA (on the basis of intensity of heat)

  1. High Sweat (Maha Sweda)
  2. Medium Sweat (Madhyama Sweda)
  3. Low Sweat (Durbala Sweda) 

on the basis of induction of heat

  1. Thermal (Sagni Sweda) -13 
  2. Non Thermal (Niragni Sweda) -10

on the basis of application of heat

  1. Local (Ekanga Sweda)
  2. General (Sarvanga Sweda)

On the basis of nature of heat

  1. Moist heat (Snigdha Sweda)
  2. Dry heat (Rooksha Sweda)


  1. Tapa Sweda
  2.  Ushma Sweda
  3. Upnaha Sweda
  4.  Drava Sweda

UPANAHA (poultice)

Upanaha is a type of fomentation(sudation) in which the medicines are made in to a paste after boiling with suitable liquid and applied over the affected  area. This paste is then covered with Vatahara leaves and bandaged with thick cloth, which can be removed after 12 hours of application.  


1.Local (Ekanga Sweda)

2. General (Sarvanga Sweda)

  • Valuka potali swed: mostly used for joint pain in Rheumatiod Arthritis (Aamavata)
  • Patra pind swed: used in stiffness of all joint, can be done on whole body.
  • Shashtik shaali pind swed
  • Guru pravarna(covering the whole body with blanket or any heavy clothing or sheet or quilt.


For Patra Pinda Sweda therapy, generally the following medicinal leaves are used.

  • Eranda (Ricinus communis)
  • Nirgundi (Vitex negundo)
  • Arka (Calotropis gigantean)
  • Chincha (tamarind)
  • Dhatura (Dhatura metal)
  • Shigru (moringa leaves)

Other ingredients that can also be used in PPS are lemoncoconut grating, Lavana, Methika, Rasnadi churnaSaindhava etc. In this procedure, fresh leaves are collected and cut down into small pieces. Then they are heated in a non-stick pan, in an herbal oil or medicated oil(ksheerbala, mahanarayan oil), along with other ingredients. Once the mixture is fried, it is then tied in a clean cloth to form a bolus of Patra Pinda(pottali).


The heating apparatus is maintained at a constant temperature, and the bolus(POTTALI) is frequently dipped in the warm oil while massaging the body of patient  with mild pressure. The fomentation(swedana/heat) given in Patra Pinda Sweda therapy is carried out in seven postures like that of Abhyangam(massage) so that all the parts of the body are equally fomented and massaged.

The sudation is done for 5-10 minutes in each posture. A constant temperature of the bolus/pottali is maintained throughout the procedure by dipping it in the heated mixture of medicated oil


The procedure completes after sweating is produced. After the proper perspiration, Rasnadi Churna is applied to the individual and they are advised to take rest for an hour and afterwards instructed to bathe with warm water. A light diet after the procedure is recommended.


Patra Pinda Sweda is beneficial in the following conditions.

  • Spondylosis
  • Spondylitis
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Osteoporosis
  • Back pain or body ache
  • Cramps
  • Sports injuries
  • Paralysis
  • Myalgia
  • Neuralgia
  • Sciatica
  • Chronic pains
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Post-traumatic dysfunctions


  • Delays the age-related degeneration of joints
  • Improves the range of motion of the joints
  • Prevents water retention in the joints
  • Improves blood circulation in the body
  • Soothes the nerves and gives relief from neuralgic pain caused by neuromuscular disorders.
  • It helps to eliminate the toxins from the body through sweating
  • Improves the sensory and motor functions in people suffering from paralysis.


Just like with the application of oil and the sudation therapy, the dry stick becomes soft and elastic. The same phenomenon is seen with the human body after oil and the sudation therapy. Stiffness and pain is relieved and you feel energized.


Shastika Shali Pinda Sweda (pronounced Shaash-tee-kaa Shaa-lee Pin-ḍa Sway-da) is a unique Ayurveda procedure, which uses a special variety of Indian rice in a bolus and it is dipped in a nourishing herbal milk decoction and massaged on the whole body or the specific affected area.

Shastika means “sixty”- and it means the rice that matures in sixty days Shali means “rice” Pinda means a bolus or bag and Sweda is the name of a sudation therapy. Shastika Shali Pinda Sweda is done either on Ekangam (on one part of the body) or on Sarvangam (on the whole body) with a bolus of boiled Shastika rice dipped in Bala Mula Kwatha (a herbal decoction) and Ksheeram (milk). Even though it is a Swedana (fomentation or sweat-inducing heatprocedure), it has a Brimhana (nourishing effect) and is useful in strengtheningnourishing and supporting bones, muscles, joints and nerves.


  • As a Swedana (sweat inducing) heat therapy, it creates a sense of lightness and improved energy.
  • This therapy tones up and nourishes the body tissues and helps in detoxification and rejuvenation of body cells.
  • It enhances flexibility and movement of joints.
  • It prevents degeneration of body tissues by improving the compactness, stability, strength and functioning of muscles, ligaments, nerves, bones and joints.
  • It enhances blood circulation and prevents and releases toxin build-up in the pores of the skin, therefore improves the complexion.


  • Emaciation, weakness of nerves and muscles,
  • Bone and joint disorders, osteoporosisarthritis
  • Muscular dystrophystiffness, muscle weakness, wasting disorders, myalgia,recurrent muscles spasm.
  • Parkinson’s Disease, numbness, paresthesia, tremors, paralysis, hemi/paraplegia,
  • Spondylosis, disc prolapse or intervertebral disc compression, spondylolisthesis,
  • Delayed walking milestones in children,
  • General debility, old age,

DURATION –  45 minutes to 1 hour, preferable time for the therapy  is in between 7 – 11 am and 4 – 6 pm. The procedure is stopped if the medicine in the boluses or the milk mixture is exhausted or used up

COMBINATION THERAPIES –  It can be combined with Abhyanga, Pizhichil, Upanaha or Vasti depending upon the disease condition.


  • Chronic cold
  • Cough
  • Hiccups
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Ear ache
  • Headache
  • Facial paralysis
  • Constipation
  • Retention of urine
  • Difficulty in passing out of urine
  • Pain, stiffness and heaviness
  • Gridhrasi/Sciatica
  • kati shool/backache
  •  vaatvyadhi/every disorder with vata aggravation
  • sarva sandhi shool/joint pains
  • sarva sandhigraha/stiffness of joints


  • in people who consume alcohol daily
  • Who are pregnant
  • Suffering from haemorrhages / bleeding
  • With Pitta personality
  • Suffering from diabetes and loose motions
  • Unconsciousness
  • Obese
  • Thirsty
  • Hungry
  • Suffering from Jaundice
  • Suffering from abdominal disorders
  • Afflicted with trauma
  • Who are weak
  • Suffering from Gout
  • Hridya Rogas (CardiacDiseases)
  • Rakta pitta (Bleeding disorders)
  •  Chhardi (vomiting)
  •  Nidranasha(Insomnia)
  •  Trishita (Thirsty/dehydrated)
  •  Madapeeta (intoxicated)
  •  Vishapeeta (Poisoned)
  • Dagdha (burnt)


  • Coldness and pain in the body is eliminated
  • Heaviness and stiffness is pacified
  • Sweat is induced
  • Disease / Problem is alleviated
  • Lightness in the body
  • Desire to have cold substances

Symptoms of Ati sweena(excessive heating)

  • Exaggerated Pitta and blood
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Thirst
  • Prostrated body (Completely exhausted body)
  • Burning sensation in the body
  • Hoarseness of the body
  • Weakness
  • Pain in joints
  • Eruptions
  • Fever
  • Vomiting
  • Fainting
  •  Burns
  •  Drowsiness
  •  Pittaprakop