PERIODONTAL DISEASE

INTRODUCTION-

Periodontal disease is also known as gum disease. Other names are Pyorrhea, Periodontitis, and Gingivitis. It affects the tissues around the teeth and involving a set of inflammatory conditions.

Early stage symptoms – In early stage it is termed as gingivitis in which gums become swollen, red, and bleeding may be present.

Later stage-It is termed as periodontitis or more serious form. In this stage, the following symptoms are present- there is loosen teeth or teeth may fall due to loss of bone, gums can pull away, Bad breath may also be present. Further it can damage the ligaments, gums and supporting bone.

Advance Stage- At the later stage it is the main cause of loss of teeth in adults. Basically, it is due to poor Oral hygiene.

Causative Organism- Pyorrhea Alveolaris

Most affected – People with age group of 30 years and above is more prone to this disease, Male is more affected than females, Others- Smokers, and people with Diabetes are more prone to this disease.

SYMPTOMS

  • Tender gums
  • Swollen gums
  • Bright red, dusky red, purplish gums or shiny surface
  • Bleeding present in gums
  • Bad breath
  • Difficulty in eating food
  • Loose teeth
  • Formation of new spaces between teeth
  • Recession of gums
  • Pus discharge
  • Pocket formation between tooth and gums
  • Periodontal abscess

TYPES OF PERIODONTITIS-

The types of the periodontal disease are as follows-

  • Chronic Periodontitis- It mainly affects the adults, children may also be affected.

This is the commonest type of Periodontitis in which there is formation of plaque and it involves slow disorientation that may improve and get worse over time but cause the destruction of the gums and bone and should be treated to prevent loss of teeth.

  • Aggressive Periodontitis- It mainly occurs at the time of adolescence and affects some people. Further it leads to rapid progression in gums and bone and there are chances of teeth loss if left untreated.
  • Necrotizing Periodontal Disease- In this type the process of necrosis starts in the gum tissue, ligaments and supporting bone due to lack of supply of blood and leads to severe infection. It is more common in the People with low immunity levels. For example- HIV infection, cancer treatment, malnutrition.

CAUSES

  • It is triggered by bacterial activity and may be caused by indigestion and acidity.
  • Due to poor oral hygiene a thin layer of harmful bacteria starts to build continuously upon our teeth leading to formation of plaque.

It is formed after eating meals and plaque is removed after brushing of teeth.

  • Use of mouth wash containing chemical
  • If Brushing is not done properly
  • Stagnation of food particles
  • Frequent use of toothpicks.
  • High sugary diet, Carbohydrate rich diet.
  • Intake of alcohol and smoking.

RISK FACTORS

  • Gingivitis
  • Poor oral health Hygiene and habits.
  • Smoking
  • Tobacco chewing
  • Pregnancy or menopause- Hormonal changes
  • Malnutrition
  • Deficiency of Vitamin C
  • Medication that cause dry mouth
  • Bridges that won’t fit frequently
  • Immuno-compromised conditions- For Ex. leukemia, AIDS and cancer treatment
  • Other diseases- diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and Crohn’s disease , Obesity
  • Old age

COMPLICATIONS

  • Tooth loss
  • Alveolar Bone destruction
  • In advance stage it may involve heart, lungs and other parts of the body
  • It may be linked with respiratory disease, coronary artery disease or rheumatoid arthritis
  • Osteomyelitis may also be involved.

AYURVEDIC VIEW OF PERIODONTAL DISEASE

In Ayurveda, the gum related problem is basically due to vitiation of Rasa and rakta dhatu. If there is impaired digestion the toxins are produced and these toxins mix with the Rasa and Rakta Dhatu. These toxins in turn produce pyorrhea.

Ayurveda works on the root cause i.e. correction of the metabolic issues and maintaining proper elimination of harmful toxins on a regular basis.

HOME REMEDIES

  • Use of Herbal tooth powder is recommended.
  • Apply Mustard oil mixed with pinch of salt on both gums and teeth are also helpful to inhibit further growth of bacteria.
  • Yashtimadhu or Licorice root powder mixed with honey should be applied for gum massage.
  • Drink fresh juices of carrot and spinach.
  • Oil pulling with sesame oil, olive oil and compressed coconut oil may help to strengthen the teeth and gums.
  • Rub rock salt or camphor powder on gums to improve oral hygiene and prevents pyorrhea.
  • Use decoction of Triphala for Gargling prevents infections in the oral cavity and help in curing pyorrhoea.

DIET AND LIFESTYLE –

  • Avoid oily and spicy food items and heavy meals during night time.
  • Eat a Healthy diet enriched with fiber in order to maintain your gut health.
  • Avoid junk food or packaged food items that disturbs the metabolism.
  • One should be physically active i.e. avoid Sedentary lifestyle
  • Late-night meals should be avoided
  • Diwaswapna or day sleep should be avoided in order to maintain a healthy digestion.
  • Don’t ignore your oral Hygiene. It ashould be well maintained by brushing twice a day.
  • Correct your brushing technique and choose a right toothbrush as to avoid gum injuries.
  • Eating of fresh fruits For Ex. guavas, bananas, and oranges etc. help a lot in maintaining oral hygiene.