Ayurveda explains about six basic principles of treatment called as “SHAT UPKARMA” includes six type of therapies, ingredients use in this type of therapy and suitable or non-suitable people for these therapies.
SIX TYPES OF THERAPIES
- Langhana (reducing)
- Brimhana (nourishing)
- Rukshana (dryness-causing)
- Snehana (oleation)
- Swedana (sudation)
- Stambhana (astringent)
- Langhana (reducing / lightening therapy) – the things produces lightness or reduction in the body is known as Langhana.
- Brimhana (nourishing therapy) – the things increases the bulk of the body and makes it strong is known as Brimhana.
- Rukshana (dryness causing) – the therapy which cause dryness, roughness, and coarseness is known as rukshana.
- Snehana (oleation) – the thing which moisturizes and smoothens the skin and causes unction, fluidity, and ooziness is called Snehana.
- Swedana (sudation) – the therapy which produces sweat, abolishes rigidity, heaviness, and coldness is known as swedana.
- Stambhana – the therapy which results in inhibition the mobility and flow of bodily substances and stabilizes is called Stambhana.
PHARMACO – THERAPEUTIC PROPERITIES BEHIND THIS EFFECTS
- The drug or substance that possesses light, hot, sharply acting, clearing, dry, rough, flowing and hard qualities are used for Langhana.
- The drug or substance that possesses heavy, cold, soft, unctuous, thick, gross, slimy, sluggish, stable and smooth qualities are used for brimhana.
- The drug or substance that possesses dry, light, rough, sharply acting, hot, stable, non-slimy and primarily hard qualities are used for Rukshana therapy.
- The drug or substance that possesses hot, acute, flowing (unstable), unctuous, dry, minute liquid, stable and heavy qualities are used for swedana.
- The drugs or substance possess cold, sluggish, soft, smooth, dry, minute (subtle), liquid, stable and light qualities are used for stambhana.
LANGHANA THERAPHY (REDUCING THERAPY)
Langhana is a Sanskrit word that means “to fast,” “to reduce”. In Ayurveda, langhana is used to describe dieting, fasting and weight-reducing therapy and it includes related treatments that reduce various types of heaviness in the body and mind.
TEN METHODS OF LANGANA THERAPY
- Pipasa (control of thirst)
- Maruta (exposure to wind/breathing exercises),
- Aatapa (exposure to sunlight),
- Pachana (applications of digestive measures),
- Upawasa (fasting)
- Vyayama (exercise)
INDICATION OF LANGHANA
People who are suffering from excessive vitiation of kapha, pitta, blood and waste products, are trouble with obstructed Vata and people who have bulky and strong bodies should be treated using shodhana procedures of Langhana. Diseases caused by increase of kapha and pitta such as vomiting, diarrhea, heart disease, acute intestinal irritation, alasaka, and fever, and constipation, heaviness of body, nausea should be treated first. People who are suffering from skin disorders, urinary disorders and those consuming excess of unctuous food, with excess discharges in the body, undergone excess nourishing therapy should be treated with Langhana therapy. Langhana is good for patients with vata-dominant disorders in a season of shishira ritu (winter).
Brimhana (nourishing) is Soumya (mild) in nature and produces a nourishing effect on the dhathus and builds up the body. Brimhana treats Vata and Pitta and nourishes the dhathus and strengthens them strongly. It increases the immunity in people against diseases and balances the immune system so that not to overreacts to external or internal toxins. Accumulation of the impurities in the dhathus is a result of imbalances of doshas is considered as the root of all diseases in Ayurveda. Hence brimhana therapy eliminates these impurities from the dhathus and then nourishes them properly. In the presence of impurities in the body nourishment therapies become less effective and produce harmful conditions like Ama.
QUALITIES OF MEDICINE USED IN BRIMHANA TREATMENT
- Heavy – e.g. Ghee
- Cold – e.g. Milk
- Oily – e.g. Oil
- Soft – e.g. Cream
PERSON REQUIRING BRIMHANA THERAPY
- Brimhana therapy is done in persons having suffered from Vata and Pitta diseases. When the Agni is excessive, a condition called Tekshana Agni or any degenerative diseases, neurological diseases can be treated with Brimhana therapy.
- Malnutrition: Dhathu Kashaya
- General body weakness: Sosha
- To improve strength in childhood: Bala
- To rejuvenate in old age: Vriddha
- Pregnant woman: Garbhini
- After delivery: Prasooti
- Exhausted with physical and mental strain: Ati Vayama
The quality which is devoid of stickiness is called ruksha. Rukshana means Snehashoonye which means devoid of Sneha or absence of Sneha.
QUALITY OF RUKSHANA THERAPY
The Dravya having the qualities like
RUKSHANA YOGYA PEOPLE
Patients suffering from diseases which are characterized by the obstruction of Srotas, the dominance of excessive aggravated Doshas, diseases involving Marma Sthana (Vital parts), and the person suffering from Urusthambha Vyadhi, diseases such as Adhyavata, Prameha, should also be treated with Rukshana therapy. Also, the person whose body is affected with a large amount of Dosha accumulation should be initially treated with Rukshana Karma only. Rukshana is a prime treatment modality in conditions such as Aamavata, Shvasa, Pratishyaya, Pitaka, Kota, Kandu, Kushta, Arochaka, Tandra, Pandu, Klaibya, Ati Sthoulya, Alaska, Gurugatrata, etc.
Sneha (oleation) means, administering a person with any kind of fat- may be herbal ghee, herbal oil, animal fat, or bone marrow to the patient.
The substance that induces Sneha (oiliness), vishyanda (liquefaction), mardavam (smoothness), and kleda (moistness) on consumption is called Sneha.
SUBSTANCES USED FOR SNEHANA
Cow ghee, sesame oil, animal muscle fat, and bone marrow are four types of fats that are usually administered. Among ghee is the best because ghee has the power to assimilate effectively the properties of other substances. It is light to digest. Ghee is most efficient for pitta balance and taila the least efficient to balance pitta.
PERSONS SUITABLE FOR OLEATION
- Oleation therapy is generally prescribed for those who are to be given Sweden or panchakarma therapy.
- Those who have roughness in the skin
- Those suffering from disease due to Vata imbalance
- Those who suffer from mental stress
- The aged, the children, the debilitated
- The emaciated, fatigue
- Depleted blood and semen
- Who are suffering from diseases of Vata?
- Blindness, ophthalmia
PERSONS UNSUITABLE FOR OLEATION
- Oleation therapy should not be administered to such patients who are eligible for Rukshana therapy.
- Those whom Kapha and Medas are aggravated
- Those with Kapha symptoms like excess mucus secretion from mouth and anus
- Those whose power of digestion is continuously weak or very strong digestive power
- Those suffering from theist and fainting, the pregnant women
- Those with the dry palate, obesity, stiffness of thighs, anorexia
- Those having aversion to food, those suffering from vomiting, diarrhea, dysentery
- Abdominal diseases, diseases due to improper digestion as well as metabolism ama condition, altered metabolism, disease of the throat, disease of Kapha imbalance, emaciated, those having aversion to the intake of unctuous substances, fainting, loss of consciousness.
TYPES OF SWEDEN
- Tapa – fomentation
- Upanaha – warm poultice
- Ushma – warm steam
- Drava – pouring of warm liquid
BENEFITS OF SWEDEN
Eliminate cold and pain, soft the body organ from sweating. Afterward, the body should be massaged slowly, giving a bath in warm water and allowed comforts.
PEOPLE SUITABLE FOR SWEDANA
- Shwasa – dyspnoea, COPD, asthma
- Kasa – cough
- Pratishaya – running nose, allergic rhinitis
- Hidhma – hiccup
- Adhmana – bloating
- Vibandha – constipation
- Svarabheda – altered voice, hoarseness
- Vatavyadi – diseases of Vata imbalance
- Angamarda – body ache
- Stiffness in the lower back, flanks back, abdomen, and jaws
- Enlargement of the scrotum, contraction of toes and fingers, tetanus, dysuria, malignant tumor, obstruction to the flow of semen and urine.
PEOPLE UNSUITABLE FOR SWEDANA
- Atishoola – pain
- Atirooksha – highly dry
- Durbala– weak
- Murchita –fainted, unconscious
- Those who are fit for Sthambhana treatment
- Kshataksheena – wounded, injured
- Patients with ama conditions
- Madyavikari – chronic alcoholics
- Night blindness
- Visarpa – herpes
- Shosha – inflammation
- Who have recently consumed milk, curds, and fats?
- Who has just undergone Virechana Treatment?
- Who are burnt?
- Kamala – liver disease
- Pandu – anaemia
- Meha – urinary disorders
- People with pitta imbalance
- Women who are pregnant menstruating
DEFINITION – the therapy that prevents mobility and flow of mobile body elements and fluids is known as Stambhana. It is also called blocking treatment.
EFFECT ON TRI DOSHA
- Because it restricts movement, and movement is Vata quality so Stambhana karma decreases Vata dosha.
- Because of coldness and dryness etc which are against pitta dosha quality, this therapy decrease pitta dosha. So it is useful in Vata and pitta conditions.
Stambhana karma is useful in people afflicted with pitta – such as nasal bleeding, cough with blood streaks, menorrhagia, etc. burn injuries, vomiting, diarrhea, poisoning, and excessive sweating.
PROPER STAMBHANA SIGNS
By the proper administration of astringent treatment, the patient gains strength and the indicated disease subside.
EXCESSIVE STAMBHANA EFFECTS
The sign and symptoms of the excessive stambhana are
- shyavata – blakish appearance
- stabda gatrata – stiffness of the body
- udvega – upward movement of vata
- hanu sangraha – rigidity of jaw
- hrudaya nigraha – bradycardia
- varchna nigraha – constipation