PURPOSE OF LIFE
आयु: कामायमानेन धर्मार्थ सुखसाधनम् । आयुर्वेदोपदेशेषु विधेय: परमादर:
To achieve the purpose of life that is
- Dharma – following the path of righteousness
- Artha – earning money in a legal way
- Kama – fulfilling our desire
- Moksha – achieving Salvation,
To achieve this purpose of life, one should concentrate on having a long life.
ORIGIN OF AYURVEDA
ब्रह्मा स्मृत्वा आयुषो वेदं प्रजापतिमजिग्रहेत्सो अश्विनौ तौ सहस्राक्षं सो अत्रिपुत्रादिकान्मुनीन्ते अग्निवेशादिकांस्ते टु पृथक् तन्त्राणि तेनिरे
Lord Brahma, remembering Ayurveda, > Taught it to Prajapathi > He in turn taught it to Ashwini Kumaras (twins) > They taught it to Sahasraksa (Lord Indra) > He taught it to Atri’s son (Atreya Punarvasu) and other sages > They taught it to Agnivesa and others and they (agnivesa and other disciples) composed treatises, each one separately.
BRANCHES OF AYURVEDA
कायबालग्रहोर्ध्वाङ्ग शल्यदंष्ट्रा जरावृषान्अष्टावङ्गानि तस्याहु: चिकित्सा येषु संश्रिता
The eight branches of Ayurveda are
- Kaya Chikitsa – General medicine
- Bala Chikitsa – Paediatrics
- Graha Chikitsa – Psychiatry
- Urdhvanga Chikitsa – Diseases and treatment of Ear, Nose, Throat, Eyes and Head
- Shalya Chikitsa – Surgery
- Damshrta Chikitsa – Toxicology
- Jara Chikitsa – Geriatrics
- Vrushya Chikitsa – Aphrodisiac therapy
वायु: पित्तं कफश्चेति त्रयो दोषा: समासत:विकृताऽविकृता देहं घ्नन्ति ते वर्त्तयन्ति च ।
Pitta > these are three Doshas of the body.
Perfect balance of three Doshas leads to healthly life imbalance in Tridosha leads to diseases.
HOW TRIDOSHA ARE SPREAD IN BODY AND IN A DAY?
ते व्यापिनोऽपि हृन्नाभ्योरधोमध्योर्ध्व संश्रया:वयोऽहोरात्रिभुक्तानांतेऽन्तमध्यादिगा: क्रमात्
These Tridosha are present all over the body, but they have particular area in the body. If body divide into three parts
- The upper part up to chest is dominated by Kapha Dosha,
- Between chest and Umbilicus region is dominated by Pitta dosha ,
- Below umbilicus region is dominated by Vatadosha.Similarly, in a person’s life and day or night dosha present like this,
- The first part is dominated by Kapha,
- Second part is dominated by Pitta and
- Third part is dominated by Vata.
TYPES OF DIGESTIVE FIRES TYPES OF DIGESTIVE FIRES
तैर्भवेद्विषम: तीक्ष्णो मन्दश्चाग्नि: समै: सम:
There are four types of Digestive fires (Agni)
- Vishama Agni – It is influenced by Vata dosha. A person with Vishama Agni sometimes has a high appetite, and sometimes, a low appetite.
- Teekshna Agni – It is influenced by Pitta dosha. A person with Teeksna Agni will have high digestion power and appetite.
- Manda Agni –It is influenced by Kapha dosha. A person with Manda Agni will have low digestion power and appetite.
- Sama Agni – It is influenced by the perfect balance of Tridosha (Vata, pitta, Kapha). Where a person has proper appetite and digestion power and food digested at the proper time.
TYPES OF DIGESTIVE TRACTS (KOSHTA) / NATURE OF BOWELS
कोष्ठ: क्रूरो मृदुर्मध्यो मध्य: स्यात्तै: समैरपि
There are three types of digestive tracts (Koshta)
- Kroora Koshta – In this type of koshta the person will take a long time for digestion and bowel evacuation will be irregular. It is influenced by Vata.
- Mrudu Koshta –In this type, the people have a sensitive stomach and has a very short digestion period. Even administration of milk will cause bowel evacuation.
- Madhya Koshta –In this type, there is proper digestive tract and bowel evacuation at appropriate times, influenced by Tridosha.
TYPES OF PRAKRUTI –
- Vata Prakriti – Vata Prakriti is considered as low quality
- Pitta Prakruti – Pitta prakruti is considered as moderate quality
- Kapha Prakruti – Kapha Prakriti is considered as a good quality.
- Tridoshaj– This Prakriti is considered the best Prakriti which influenced by Vata, pitta, Kapha.
- Dual body prakruti – Vata-Pitta, Pitta-Kapha, Vata-Kapha.
QUALITIES OF VATA
तत्र रूक्षो लघु: शीत: खर: सूक्ष्मश्चलोऽनिल:
- Rooksha – dryness,
- Laghu – Lightness,
- Sheeta – coldness,
- Khara – roughness,
- Sookshma – minuteness,
- Chala – movement
QUALITIES OF PITTA
पित्तं सस्नेह तीक्ष्णोष्णं लघु विस्रं सरं द्रवम्
- Sasneha – slightly oily, unctuous,
- Teekshna – piercing, entering into deep tissues,
- Ushna – hotness,
- Laghu – lightness,
- Visram – bad smell,
- Sara – having fluidity, movement,
- Drava – liquidity is the quality of Pitta.
QUALITIES OF KAPHA
स्निग्ध: शीतो गुरुर्मन्द: श्लक्ष्णो मृत्स्न: स्थिर: कफ:
- Snigdha – oily, unctuous,
- Sheeta – cold, Guru – heavy,
- Manda – mild, viscous,
- Shlakshna – smooth, clear,
- Mritsna – slimy, jelly,
- Sthira – stability, immobility are the qualities of Kapha.
QUALITY OF SAMSARGA AND SANNIPATA
संसर्गः सन्निपातश्च तद्द्वित्रिक्षयकोपतः
- The increase, decrease of individual Doshas, or imbalance between of these Doshas is called Samsarga.
- The imbalance of all the three Doshas together is called Sannipata.
BODY TISSUES AND WASTE PRODUCTS
रस असृक् मांस मेदो अस्थि मज्ज शुक्राणि धातव:सप्त दूष्या: मला: मूत्र शकृत् स्वेदादयोऽपि च
Body tissues and waste products are called Dushyas and there are influenced and affected by Doshas.
- Rasa – this is the first product of digestion, the digested food turns into Rasa.
- Rakta – Blood
- Mamsa – Muscle
- Meda – Fat tissue
- Asthi – Bones and cartilages
- Majja – Bone marrow
- Shukra – Semen / Ovum.
Mala – waste products
- Shakrut / Pureesha – feces
- Sweda – sweat
- Mostra – urine is the three waste products of the body.
Nature of increase and decrease
वृद्धि: समानै: सर्वेषां विपरीतै: विपर्यय: ।
Equal qualities lead to increase, and opposing qualities lead to a decrease. For example, dryness is the quality of Vata. If a Vata body type person exposes to dry cold weather, his dryness and Vata will increase, leading to dry skin. In the same way, oiliness is the opposite quality of dryness. If he applies oil to the skin, then the dryness and related Vata is decreased.
रसाः स्वाद्वम्ललवणतिक्तोषणकषायकाःषड् द्रव्यमाश्रितास्ते च यथापूर्वं बलावहाः
- Madhura – sweet,
- Amla – Sour
- Lavana – Salt
- Tikta – Bitter
- Katu – Pungent
- Kashaya – Astringent are the six types of Rasa.
EFFECT OF TASTES ON TRI DOSHA
तत्राद्या मारुतं घ्नन्ति त्रय: तिक्तादय: कफम् कषाय तिक्त मधुरा: पित्तमन्ये तु कुर्वते
- The first three tastes i.e. Sweet, sour, and salt mitigates Vata and increases Kapha.
- The last three taste i.e. bitter, pungent and astringent tastes mitigate Kapha and increase Vata.
- Astringent, bitter, and sweet taste mitigates Pitta.
- Sour, salt, and pungent tastes increase Pitta.
TYPES OF FOOD SUBSTANCES:
शमनं कोपनं स्वस्थहितं द्रव्यमिति त्रिधा
- Shamana – Food that brings down the increased Dosha to a normal level.
- Kopana – Food that increases the lowered Dosha to a normal level.
- Swasthahita – Food that maintains the normalcy of Tridosha and health.
TYPES OF POTENCY (VEERYA)
उष्णशीतगुनोत्कर्षात्तत्र वीर्यं द्विधा स्मृतम्
- Ushna veerya (Hot potency) – Some food items are hot in nature. For example pepper.
- Sheeta veerya (cold potency) – Some food items are cold in nature. For example milk.
Substances that have Astringent, bitter and sweet in tastes are coolant in nature and
Sour, salt and pungent tastes are hot in nature.
THREE TYPES OF VIPAKA
त्रिधा विपाको द्रव्यस्य स्वद्वम्लकटुकात्मकः
Vipaka refers to conversion of taste after starting phase of digestion. These are of three type
- Madhura Vipaka (sweet) – Generally, Sweet, and salt tastes undergo this type of Vipaka.
- Amla Vipaka (Sour) – Sour taste undergoes this type of Vipaka
- Katu Vipaka (pungent) – Bitter, astringent and pungent tastes undergo this type of Vipaka.
TWENTY TYPES OF QUALITIES
गुरु मन्द हिम स्निग्ध श्लक्ष्ण सान्द्र मृदु स्थिरा: ।गुणा: ससूक्ष्म विशदा: विंशति: स विपर्यया: ॥
- Guru x laghu
- Manda X tiksna
- Hima X ushna
- Snighda X ruksa
- Slaksna X khara
- Sandra X drava
- Mrdu X kathina
- Sthira X cala
- Suksma X sthula
- Vishada X picchila
DEFINITION OF HEALTH AND DISEASE
रोगस्तु दोषवैषम्यं दोष साम्यं अरोगता ।
Imbalance in between Tridosha is called disease and balance between Tridosha is called health.
TYPES OF DISEASE:
निजागन्तु विभागेन तत्र रोगा द्विधा स्मृताः
- Nija roga – Disease caused due to imbalance in internal factors.
- Agantu Roga – Disease which is caused by external factors. Such as injuries. Both these types of disease can occur in body and mind.
TYPES OF MENTAL DOSHAS –
तेषां कायमनोमेदादधिष्ठानामपि द्विधारजस्तमश्च मनसो द्वौ च दोषावुदाह्रतौ
- Rajas – this quality of mind drives us to take actions
- Tamas – this quality leads to inaction and lethargy
EXAMINATION OF A PATIENT
दर्शनस्पर्शनप्रश्नैः परीक्षेत च रोगिणम्
- Darshana – by means of inspection, observation
- Sparshana – by means of touching
- Prashna – by means of asking questions
EXAMINATION OF DISEASE:
Disease should be examined by its
- Nidana -causes, etiology,
- Purvarupa – prodromal symptoms,
- Lakshana – Specific signs and symptoms,
- Upashayaa – diagnostic tests,
- Samprapti – Pathogenesis.
TYPES OF HABITAT (DESHA)
भूमिदेहप्रभेदेन देशमाहुरिह द्विधाजाङ्गलं वातभूयिष्ठमनूपं तु कफोल्बणम्साधारणं सममलं त्रिधा भूदेशमादिशेत्
- Bhumi desha – region of land and
- Dehadesha – the body.
Bhumi desha divided into,
- Jangala desha – vata is predominate in this desha and it is desert-like land with no mountains or hills, has less vegetation and poor water resources.
- Anupa desha – kapha is predominant in this desha and it has marshy land with more of water, more vegetation, very less of sunlight and heat.
- Sadharana desha – in this desha all Tridosha in balance state. It is moderate type with few mountains hills, moderate water, vegetation and sunlight.
TYPES OF MEDICINES:
शोधनं शमनं चेति समासात् औषधं द्विधा ॥
शरीरजानां दोषाणां क्रमेण परमौषधम् ।
बस्ति: विरेको वमनं तथा तैल घृतं मधु: ॥
There are two types of medicines.
- Shamana – Palliative treatment – which brings the Dosha to normal state useful in initial stages of diseases.
- Shodhana – Purification treatment – which expels imbalanced Dosha out of the body useful in aggravated stages of diseases.
Examples: For Vata Basti is the Shodhana treatment, and oil is Shamana treatment.
For pitta Virechana is the Shodhana treatment and Ghee is Shamana treatment.
For Kapha Vamana is the Shodhana treatment and Honey is Shamana treatment.
TREATMENT FOR MENTAL IMBALANCE:
धीधैर्यात्मादिविज्ञानं मनोदोषौषधं परम्
- Dhee – improving intelligence
- Dhairya – improving courage
- Atmavijnana – Self-realization means to treat mental imbalance.
FACTORS OF TREATMENT. –
भिषग् द्रव्याण्युपस्थाता रोगी पादचतुष्टयम्चिकित्सतस्य निर्दिष्टं, प्रत्येकं तच्चतुर्गुणम्दक्षः तीर्थात्तशास्त्रार्थो दृष्टकर्मा शुचिर्भिषक्बहुकल्पं बहुगुणं संपन्नं योग्यमौषधम्अनुरक्तः शुचिर्दक्षो बुद्धिमान् परिचारकःआढ्यो रोगी भिषग्वश्यो ज्ञापकः सत्त्वानपि
Chikitsa Chatushpada –
- Bhishag (Doctor)
- Dravya (medicine), each of these four have further four qualities.
- Upastha (Nurse) and
- Rogi (patient)
Qualities of doctor:
- Daksha – Alert, disciplined
- Shastra – Having detailed knowledge about diseases and their treatment.
- Drushtakarma – Having practical experience
- Shuchi – Cleanliness
Qualities of medicine:
- Bahukalpa – Ability to formulate in different forms, like decoction, powder, herbal oil, tablets, ras, juice etc.
- Bahuguna – Having enormous qualities
- Sampanna – Endowed with virtues
- Yogya – suitable and appropriate for specific diseases.
Qualities of nurse:
- Anurakta – Compassion towards patients
- Shuchi – Cleanliness
- Daksha – Alert, active
- Buddhiman – Intelligence
Qualities of patient:
- Adya – Rich
- Bhishagvashya – 100 % obedience towards doctor
- Jnapaka – Good memory
- Satvavaan – Having good willpower and strength to tolerate disease and treatment.
TYPES OF DISEASES:
साध्यो असाध्य इति व्याधिर्द्विधा तौ तु पुनर्द्विधासुसाध्यः कृच्छ्रसाध्यश्च, याप्यो यश्चानुपक्रमः
सर्वौषधक्षमे देहे यूनः पुंसो जितात्मनःअमर्मगो अल्पहेत्वग्र रूपरूपो अनुपद्रवःअतुल्यदूष्यदेशर्तुप्रकृतिः पादसम्पदिग्रहेष्वनुगुनेष्वेकदोषमार्गो नवः सुखः
Two main types, which are further divided into two types.
- Sadhya – Which can be cured easily.
It is of two types –
- Easy to cure (Sukha Sadhya)
Difficult to cure (Krichra Sadhya)
- Asadhya – Which cannot be cured easily.
It is of two types –
- Yapya (medicine is continue as far as patient is alive),
- Anupakrama (no treatment is required)
QUALITIES OF DIFFICULT-TO-TREAT DISEASES
शस्त्रादिसाधनः कृच्छ्रः सङ्करे च ततो गदःशेषत्वादायुषो याप्यः पथ्याभ्यासाद्विपर्यये
Disease which require the use of sharp instruments in treatment and also those which have mixture of factors enumerated in previous verses are krcchra sadhya (curable with difficulty).
अनुपक्रम एव स्यात्स्थितो अत्यन्तविपर्ययेऔत्सुक्यमोहारतिकृद् दुष्टरिष्टो अक्षनाशनः
Diseases which have features entirely opposite of curable diseases, which have lasts for long period, involving all the important tissues and vital organs and have produced anxiety (fear of death), delusion and restlessness, presenting fatal signs and which causes loss of sense organs are impossible to cure. (Anupakrama), which require no therapy, able to be rejected, sure to cause death.
PATIENT WORTH REJECTION:
त्येजेदार्तं भिषग्भूपैर्द्विष्टं तेषां द्विषं द्विषम्हीनोपकरणं व्यग्रमविधेयं गतायुषम्चण्डं शोकातुरं भीरुं कृतघ्नं वैद्यमानिनम्
The physician should reject the patient who is hated by physician and who hates himself (dejected in life), not require any equipment’s and other facilities required for treatment, who is busy with other activities, not having the re THREE TYPES OF VIPAKA